Ĉu vi festas Halovenon?

Haloveno estas tre populara festotago en Usono. Ĉi tie ĝi estas plejparte festotago de infanoj, kiam ili portas amuzajn kostumojn kaj ricevas dolĉaĵojn. Multaj familioj skulptas kukurbojn kaj kreas “Jack-O’-Laterns,” kiuj oni metas ekster sia domo kun interna kandalo.

Haloveno estas sezono de fantomoj, demonoj, zombioj, sorĉistoj kaj sorĉado. Ankaŭ ĝi havas religian aspekton, ĉar ĝi okazas unu tago antaŭ Ĉiuj Sanktuloj (aŭ Sanktulara Festo.)

Lernu pli pri Haloveno: eo.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halloween

Esperanto Halloween Words

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Handling Esperanto’s “Owies”

There is a small class of words in Esperanto that end in the suffix -AŬ. These words come up frequently, so it is a good idea to memorize them.

In the following video, Covering the Owies in Esperanto, Alex Miller presents some mnemonic devices to help you remember these words. Great video, Alex!

In a comment in the Duolingo Esperanto Learners group that included this video, Lee Miller, one of the admins and experts in the group, said this:

[R]emember that -aŭ isn’t a word ending. “Kontraŭ” is a complete word in itself, so word endings can be added. “Kontraŭe”, “kontraŭo”, “kontraŭi”, etc.

Excellent point, Lee!

Here is a list of all of the words that Alex discusses in his video, in alphabetical order:

ADIAŬ – goodbye

ALMENAŬ – at least

AMBAŬ – both

ANKAŬ – also, as well

ANKORAŬ – still, continues to be/exist

ANSTATAŬ – instead of

ANTAŬ – before (spatially)

ANTAŬ OL – before (temporally)

APENAŬ – hardly, not appropriately

– or

BALDAŬ – soon

ĈIRKAŬ – around

HIERAŬ – yesterday

HODIAŬ – today

KONTRAŬ – against, in opposition to

KVAZAŬ – as though

LAŬ – according to, along, by

MALGRAŬ – despite

MORGAŬ – tomorrow

NAŬ – the number nine (9)

PRESKAŬ – almost

Mental Health Terms in Esperanto

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I came across a post on Tumblr that has a list of mental health terms in Esperanto. May is Mental Health Awareness Month, so it seems appropriate to share this now. Many thanks to La Purpuro for compiling this list:

Mental Illness – Psika Malsano

  • ADHD – Atentomanka-Hiperaktiva Perturbo (AHP)
  • Anxiety – Anksio
  • Bipolar Disorder – Dupolusa Perturbo
  • Depression – Deprimo
  • Executive Dysfunction – Sinrega Misfunkcio
  • Intrusive Thoughts – Entrudaj Pensoj
  • OCD – Obsedema-Impulsiĝema Perturbo
  • PTSD – Posttraŭmata Streĉa Perturbo (PTSP)
  • Schizophrenia – Skizofrenio
  • Self-Isolation – Sinizoliĝo
  • Suicide – Sinmortigo

Treatment – Trakt(ad)o

  • Catharsis – Katarso
  • Grounding – Koncentriĝo
  • Hotline – (Telefona) Krizlineo
  • Medication – Medikamento
  • Mindfulness – Plenatenteco
  • Psychologist – Psikologo
  • Self-Care – Sinzorgo
  • Therapy – (Psiko)terapio

Check out more of La Purpuro’s Tumblr blog!

Common Esperanto Abbreviations

Here is a short list of common Esperanto abbreviations:

  • anst. – anstataŭ­
  • bv. – bonvolu
  • ĉ. – ĉirkaŭ
  • D-ro/D-ino – Doktoro/-ino
  • E-o/Eo/Esp-o – Esperanto
  • E-a/Ea – Esperanta
  • ekz-e/ekz. – ekzemple
  • eld. – eldono
  • i.a. – inter aliaj
  • k – kaj
  • k.a. – kaj aliaj
  • k.c – kaj cetere
  • k.s. – kaj simile
  • k. sekv. – kaj sekvaj
  • kp. – komparu
  • ktp. – kaj tiel plu
  • n-ro – numero
  • p. – paĝo
  • resp. – respektive
  • Rim. – rimarko
  • s-ano – samideano
  • s-ro/s-ino – sinjoro/-ino
  • t.e. – tio estas
  • trad. – tradukis/tradukisto
  • t.n. – tiel nomata
  • v./vd. – vidu

Many thanks to Markus Beyer, who posted this in the Duolingo Esperanto Learners group on Facebook.

Ili estas Indiĝinaj Amerikanoj, ne Indianoj!

Last night, I unintentionally got into a heated discussion regarding the use of the term “Indian” to refer to what we now call Native Americans, or First Nations Peoples. The term, “Indian,” dates back to the days of Columbus’ accidental “discovery” of islands in the Caribbean. He thought he had reached India, and so he referred to the native peoples he met as “Indians.”

It is not accurate to call the indigenous peoples of the Americas, “Indians,” as they are not at all related culturally or ethnically to the peoples of South Asia: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, etc. In fact, the term is now considered offensive by many in the United States and Canada.

The Esperanto word for “Native Americans in the United States” is “Indianoj.” Now, this is because Esperanto originated in the late 19th century, and the term “Indian” was still in common use. (See the Vikipedio entry on the subject; in Esperanto.) My query to the Duolingo Esperanto Learners group was about using more accurate and less offensive terms to refer to the entire group of indigenous peoples of the Americas:

I have read in several places that the Esperanto name for Native Americans (aka First Nations Peoples in Canada) is “Indianoj.” I understand that since the days of Columbus, people have referred to Native Americans as “Indians,” but that is seen as offensive in our day and age. Not to mention that it is a complete mistake, as Columbus thought he had arrived in India and not a continent between Europe and Asia. The peoples he encountered had been living in North America for millennia.

To that end, is there any movement within Esperanto to change the name to something less offensive, and more accurate?

Would it be unacceptable to refer to them as “Indiĝinaj Amerikanoj” or “Unuaj Naciaj Popoloj”? While “Indianoj” may be correct in Esperanto, it feels wrong for me to use it.

The better responses I received are from Lee Miller (one of the group’s moderators and Esperanto experts) as follows:

I don’t think there’s any “movement”, but I do think “indiĝenoj” is probably more frequently used now than “Indianoj”. But all languages struggle with socially appropriate terminology–it’s not a unique Esperanto problem.

“Indianoj” in Esperanto doesn’t carry any negative connotation, and is clearly distinct from “hindoj” or “baratanoj” used for people from India. The word “indiĝeno(j)” is also in use in Esperanto.

Despite Lee’s assurance that “Indianoj” has no negative connotation in Esperanto, I do not wish to use the term. It may have its basis in history, but that basis was founded on mistaken identity and does not accurately describe the indigenous peoples of the Americas. In its place, I will use the term “Indiĝenaj Amerikanoj.”

Am I stepping beyond the bounds of the Esperantujo? Frankly, I could care less. No, I am not being flippant, I am simply standing my ground and refusing to refer to a group with a name that *IS* considered derogatory in modern English (despite what some in the discussion had to say,) as it should be in all languages. I am more concerned with accuracy than I am with sticking with tradition for tradition’s sake.

What do you think about this topic? How do you refer to Native Americans when speaking Esperanto?